Strengths and Limitations of Web 2.0This is a featured page

Web 2.0 Roadmap

When determining which Web 2.0 tool is appropriate to use in a learning environment, one must weigh the many advantages and disadvantages that are inherent in using these technological tools. In fact, Web 2.0 should be viewed as just that, a “tool” to assist teachers and learners find new ways that promote learning. There are valid points both for and against using a tool. In this section, the most common points are: 1) learner expectations, 2) cost, 3) privacy, 4) learning curve, and 5) collaboration.

K-12 learners expect technology, adult learners are adapting to technology but may not expect it. Let’s first examine learner expectation for technology. This chart shows the results of a 2004 survey of 4374 students from 13 institutions in 5 different states:
Student Preference for Use of IT in Classes by Gender © Robert B. Kvavik

More than one half of all American teens and 57 percent of teens worldwide who use the internet can be considered to be media creators. (Jenkins, Clinton, Purushotma, Robinson, and Weigel, 2006) Students get frustrated because of the misuse or lack of use of tools (Trinder, Guiller, Margaryan, Littlejohn, and Nicol, 2008)
Students are becoming contributors to as well as recipients, making them stakeholders in their own learning experience. (Dede, 2005) Technology used in the classroom focuses on having students “expressing themselves in writing, improving their computer skills, doing research using the internet, using computers as a free-time or reward activity, and doing practice drills. (Ertmer, 2005)
Web 2.0 tools increase positive attitudes toward school. (Drexler, Dawson, and Ferdig, 2007)
There have been instances of aggressive student behavior attributed to the anonymity of online learning environments and shallow, repetitive responses in online discussions. (Novotny and Davis, 2006)

Cost can be defined a number of ways. While the monetary definition is the most common and perhaps primary thought and it is a legitimate consideration, there is also the consideration of educational cost gained or lost by choosing to use or avoid use respectively.

Web 2.0 applications are free and therefore help to narrow the digital divide (Tsekhman, 2008).

Web 2.0 for Educators by D'Souza is a free e-book with ideas and examples for getting started on using free Web 2.0 tools.
("Creative Commons: Attribuition-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 Canada", as specifed by D'Souza.)
The cost of Web 2.0 infrastructure, personnel, training, and ongoing access are estimated to exceed billions of dollars every year (Willingham, 2008).
Low cost production is possible for the consumer/producer (Hargadon, n.d.). K-12 schools are challenged by shrinking budgets as they face inadequate infrastructures, student hackers who compromise networks, and the inability to accurately classify content in real time (“Securing Web 2.0 for K-12 & Higher Education.” n.d.).

One of the main concerns of any web based tool has to do with privacy, protecting personal information, and intellectual property. The concerns over protecting privacy and information are extremely important but by no means a reason to dismiss the use of Web 2.0 altogether.

The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) requires districts to monitor student use of the Internet and to implement technology protection measures (Willard, 2002). A lack of an effective Web 2.0 Internet safety curriculum is a concern since much of the current available material is Web 1.0 based. A coordinated approach to provide that (curriculum) is necessary (Willard, 2007).
A Creative Commons license is a free way to protect intellectual property free of charge, while also allowing others to use and build upon it (Creative Commons). Testing and sanctioning Web 2.0 apps is a drain on company or school IT departments, but allowing unsanctioned use is a major concern (MacManus, 2007).

Unsanctioned Use of Web 2.0

The concern over the learning curve of learners adapting to a given Web 2.0 tool mirrors closely with the first topic in this discussion on expectations of the learner and is also largely generational.

The collaborative creation of podcasts produced evidence that student-producers developed increased knowledge and skills in the areas of idea generation, collective problem solving and reciprocal dialogue, as well as in the exchange and revision of ideas." (Lee, McLughfin, and Chan, n.d).
Example: Podcast
Students who participated in digital learning did not perform any better on NAEP tests than students who did limited or no access to digital learning (Bauerlein, 2008).
Learners learn to discern credible information by sifting through the multitude of online sources (Dede, 2005).
Example: Research Tool
"With virtually anybody able to alter, edit or otherwise contribute to the collaborative Web pages, it can be problematic to gauge the reliability and accuracy of such resources." (refering to wikis and blogs.) (Maged, Boulos, Maramba, & Wheeler, 2006)
Example: Wiki

The interactive nature of the Web 2.0 platform provides a unique environment for collaborative learning activities and for developing collaborative tools. It also engenders unique questions and situations regarding ownership, motivation, and quality when working collaboratively.

"Social constructivism has as a central precept that knowledge is created by learners in the context of and as a result of social interaction. Social constructivist approaches are particularly aided by Web 2.0 tools as mediating mechanisms between collaborating students and between students and teachers, particularly between students who might be sometimes be working in different places and at different times. " (Franklin and van Harmelen , 2007) “minimally guided instruction is less effective and less efficient than instructional approaches that place a strong emphasis on guidance of the student learning process.” (Kirschner, Sweller, Clark 2006)
"Because of the required relationship between teacher and student and vice versa, if one fails to participate or contribute to the relationship, the tool fails.... Students and teachers must work together in order for these tools to be used effectively and accurately.” (Riley and Slater-Stern, 2001)
"Web 2.0 enables social networking and collaborative knowledge construction through easy, extensive, in-depth access to a vast range of networked communities of practice" (Freedman, 2006)
"Web 2.0 tools, on the other hand, have been more malleable and collaborative, allowing users to own, create, share, hide, control, and massage both content and process" (Carmean and McGee, 2009)
"There is significant research on how computers and networks facilitate collaboration...but little has been written about how the practices associated with these technologies transform the presentation, assimilation and dissemination of knowledge within large educational spaces." (Gordon and Bogen, 2009)
"In particular the conversational, collaborative and communal qualities of Facebook are seen to 'mirror much of what we know to be good models of learning, in that they are collaborative and encourage active participatory role for users.'” (Maloney, 2007) (Selwyn, 2007)

Example: BJ Fogg's Facebook course - "The Psychology of Facebook"
"The weakness, however, is that if it's overwhelmingly social there may not be a lot of intellectual sharing happening. "Sites like MySpace and Facebook," he (Dede) said, represent the more social end of the spectrum, with platforms such as Ning providing a more focused, goal-oriented option." (Riedel, 2009)

Web 2.0 Roadmap

This page was constructed by: Chris Beckwith, Jennifer Coker, Theresa De Hoyos, Jeanette Howe, Veronica Rodriguez, and Dayton Turner.

Bogen, David and Eric Gordon (2009). Designing Choreographies for the "New Economy of Attention". Retrieved from

Boulos, Maged, Maramba, Inocencio, and Wheeler, Steve (2006). Wikis, blogs and podcasts: a new generation of Web-based tools for virtual collaborative clinical practice and education. Retrieved from

Bauerlein, Mark (2008). Turned On, Plugged In, Online, & Dumb: Student Failure Despite the Techno Revolution. Retrieved from

Carmean, Colleen and Patricia McGee (2009). e-learning 2.0: Examining the Affordances of Social Media. Draft.

Creative Commons (2009).

Fogg, BJ (2009) The Psychology of Facebook course, Stanford University. Retrieved from

Dede,Chris (2005). Planning for Neomillennial Learning Styles. Retrieved from

Drexler, Dawsom, and Ferdig (2007). Collaborative Blogging as a Means to Develop Elementary Expository Writing Skills. Retrieved from

D'Souza, Q. (n.d.). Web 2.0 Ideas for Educators, A Guide to RSS and More Available from

Ertmer, Peggy (2005). Teacher Pedagogical Beliefs and Classroom Technology Use: A Critical Link. Retrieved from

Franklin, Tom and Mark van Harmelen Web 2.0 for Content for Learning and Teaching in Higher Education, 2007 Retrieved from

Freedman, T. (2006). “Coming of age: an introduction to the new worldwide web”, Retrieved from

Hargadon, S. (Producer). (n.d., July 27, 2009) Web 2.0 is the Future of Education. Podcast retrieved from

Jenkins, Clinton, Purushotma, Robison, and Weigel (2006). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. Retrieved from

Kirschner, Paul A., John Sweller and Richard E. Clark (2006). Why Minimal Guidance during Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching. Retrieved from

Lee, Mark, McLoughlin,CatherineandChan,Anthony (Aug 2007). Talk the Talk: Learner-generated podcasts as catalysts for knowledge creation. British Journal of Educational Technology. Vol. 39 Issue 3 P. 501-521

MacManus, R. (2007). Fear of Web 2.0. Retrieved from

Maloney, Edward J. (2007). What Web 2.0 Can Teach Us About Learning. Retrieved from

Novotny and Davis (2006). Distance Education in Nursing. Retrieved from

Riedel, Chris (2009). The Evolution of Education: Empowering Learners To Think, Create, Share, and Do. Retrieved from

Riley, Karen L. and Barbara Slater-Stern (2001). Problems and Possibilities of Web-Based Instruction: Transforming Social Studies Methods and Practice. Retrieved from

Schrock, Kathy (May-June 2005).Spotting bogus, biased, and bad Web sites: teach kids how to discern what's real—and what isn't—on the Web. Retrieved from

Securing Web 2.0 for K-12 & Higher Education. (n.d.) Retrieved from

Selwyn, Neil (2007). Web 2.0 applications as alternative environments for informal learning - a critical review. Retrieved from

Trinder, Guiller, Margaryan, Littlejohn, and Nicol (2008). Learning from digital natives: bridging formal and informal learning.
Retrieved from

Tsekhman, I (2008). Web 2.0 and Development. Digital Divide Network Retrieved from

Willard, N (2007). (Accessed on 26 July 2009). A Web 2.0 Approach to Internet Safety. Education World. Retrieved from

Willard, N (2002). (Accessed on 26 July 2009). Ensuring Student Privacy on the Internet. Education World.
Retrieved from

Willingham, D. (2008). Why Web 2.0 Will Not be an Integral Part of K-12 Education: A Reply to Steve Hargadon. Retrieved .from

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